About the event
For much of the post-Cold War period, Western policy was dominated by the idea that hard power, geopolitics, spheres of interest and all the paraphernalia associated with these concepts were a remnant of the past. The Cold War signaled a shift towards a more liberal world order, where the West had, according to the perception of many politicians and analysts, both the right and the duty to promote liberal democracy globally. The United States particularly took on this challenge and throughout the 1990s and 2000s sought to export its system of governance to far and remote places around the world. Initially, weak resistance came from domestic elites of some developing and post-communist states, who disliked losing power and privileges associated with authoritarian rule.
Later on, the challenge became more diverse, including a whole host of actors, such as those designated as “rogue states”, terrorist groups, or more recently rival or potential great powers. We are currently experiencing a period where the legitimacy of the US in promoting liberalism around the world has been challenged both internally and externally. Arguably the most important external challenges that undermines the global liberal paradigm are coming from middle-level or rising non-Western states, such as Russia or China. These states argue that the current liberal world order is too Western centered, and ignores their values and interests, as well as their approaches to world politics.
This is no more evident than in the case of Russia, where disenchantment with the liberal world order developed increasingly throughout Vladimir Putin’s tenure during the 2000s. The feeling was primarily underlined by the fact that the end of the Cold War was framed as a defeat for Russia, and thus made the US sideline Russia’s own view of the world order (nowhere is this more evident than in the case of the security architecture on the European continent). Post-soviet Russian leaders never saw geopolitics and power politics as remnants of the past. Rather, for much of the past 30 years, Russia has been struggling with its own identity and state development. Only recently, after a decade of investing in its military capabilities as well as soft power, has Russia managed to present a more geopolitical stance.
John Mearsheimer has constantly warned that the West should not assume that geopolitics has disappeared following the end of the Cold War. It is still looming, and as he argues in relation to the Ukraine crisis, states such as Russia always act in a geopolitical manner (as this is a key aspect of the nature of world politics). Hence, there are many reasons to argue that the Ukraine crisis, as well as some of the other major international crises that the West is facing is a sign that ignoring the permanence of geopolitics by American or European politicians and scholars alike has proven to be a deeply unwise move.
The Panel addresses questions such as:
• How do non-western rising powers challenge the liberal world order?
• How can we explain the recent evolution of the world order ?
• What viable alternative to the liberal world order exists?
• What is the role of geopolitics in the current world order ?
• What are the most appropriate theoretical frameworks for accounting for change and continuity in the world order
“The Future of Great Power Politics in the 21st Century”
Featuring a Keynote Address by: John Mearsheimer, PhD, Professor University of Chicago
Followed by: a distinguished Panel Discussion with: Adrian Nastase, PhD,Professor President of Nicolae Titulescu Foundation Former Prime Minister/Minister of Foreign Affairs/President of the Deputy Chamber of Parliament of Romania Adrian Severin, PhD, Professor Former Deputy Prime Minister/ Minister of Foreign Affairs / President of the PA-OSCE / MP / MEP Gabriela Cretu, PhD Chairwoman of the Commission of European Affairs- Senate House, Parliament of Romania/Former Member of the European Parliament Moderated by: Florin Pasatoiu, PhD, Lecturer President & CEO Center for Foreign Policy and Security Studies Liviu Muresan, President, EURISC Foundation Cristian Nitoiu, PhD, Lecturer Vicepresident & Deputy CEO Center for Foreign Policy and Security Studies Opening address by: Doina Muresan, PhD, Professor Director National Defence College
John J. Mearsheimer is the R. Wendell Harrison Distinguished Service Professor of Political Science at the University of Chicago, where he has taught since 1982. He graduated from West Point in 1970 and then served five years as an officer in the U.S. Air Force. He then started graduate school in political science at Cornell University in 1975. He received his Ph.D. in 1980. He spent the 1979-1980 academic year as a research fellow at the Brookings Institution, and was a post-doctoral fellow at Harvard University’s Center for International Affairs from 1980 to 1982. During the 1998-1999 academic year, he was the Whitney H. Shepardson Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations in New York. Professor Mearsheimer has written extensively about security issues and international politics more generally. He has published six books: Conventional Deterrence (1983), which won the Edgar S. Furniss, Jr., Book Award; Liddell Hart and the Weight of History (1988); The Tragedy of Great Power Politics (2001, 2014), which won the Joseph Lepgold Book Prize and has been translated into eight different languages; The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy (with Stephen M. Walt, 2007), which made the New York Times best seller list and has been translated into twenty-two different languages; Why Leaders Lie: The Truth about Lying in International Politics (2011), which has been translated into ten different languages; and The Great Delusion: Liberal Dreams and International Realities (2018). He has also written many articles that have appeared in academic journals like International Security, and popular magazines like Foreign Affairs and the London Review of Books. Furthermore he has written a number of op-ed pieces for the New York Times and the Los Angeles Times dealing with topics like Bosnia, nuclear proliferation, American policy towards India, the failure of Arab-Israeli peace efforts, the folly of invading Iraq, and the causes of the Ukrainian crisis. Finally, Professor Mearsheimer has won a number of teaching awards. He received the Clark Award for Distinguished Teaching when he was a graduate student at Cornell in 1977, and he won the Quantrell Award for Distinguished Teaching at the University of Chicago in 1985. In addition, he was selected as a Phi Beta Kappa Visiting Scholar for the 1993-1994 academic year. In that capacity, he gave a series of talks at eight colleges and universities. In 2003, he was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
Adrian Năstase was first elected to the Chamber of Deputies of Romania as member of the National Salvation Front party on 9 June 1990 and served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs in the governments of Petre Roman and Theodor Stolojan (28 June 1990 – 16 October 1992). In 1992, he was re-elected to the Chamber of Deputies as a member of the Democratic National Salvation Front (FDSN) and served as the President of the Chamber of Deputies. Between 1993 and 1997, he was also the executive president of the Party of Social Democracy in Romania (PDSR, formerly the FDSN). When the PDSR lost the 1996 elections, Adrian Năstase became leader of the opposition PDSR parliamentary group, vice-president of Chamber of Deputies, and member of Standing Bureau and Member of the Romanian delegation to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe where he was the Recording Secretary of Council of Europe commission on judicial problems and human rights with reference to illegal activities by religious sects. After the victory of the PDSR in the 2000 legislative elections and the re-election of Ion Iliescu as president of Romania, Adrian Năstase was elected president of the PDSR, which soon changed its name to the Social Democratic Party (PSD) after merging with another party. Adrian Năstase remained PSD president until April 2005 when he was replaced as PSD president by former foreign minister Mircea Geoană at a PSD party congress. At the same congress, Adrian Năstase was elected to be PSD executive president, the second most senior position in the party. Term as Prime Minister of Romania Adrian Năstase was confirmed by the Parliament as Prime Minister on 28 December 2000, following his appointment to the position in days before by President Ion Iliescu. He held the position concurrently with his leadership of the PSD. His four years as Prime Minister were characterized by unprecedented political stability in post-communist Romania, continuous economic growth, and a foreign policy strongly oriented toward the West. Romania joined NATO, and committed Romanian troops in support of international efforts in the Balkans, Afghanistan, and Iraq. His government completed accession negotiations with the European Union (EU) and aggressively passed legislation and implemented a number of reforms required for EU accession, which was subsequently completed with the 2007 enlargement of the European Union. His government successfully negotiated the lifting of visa restrictions on Romanians traveling to EU Schengen treaty countries.
Positions in International Organizations
Adrian Năstase is a founding member, for the Human Rights Information and Documentation System (HURIDOCS), London (1982). In 1984 he became a member of the French Society of International Law, Paris and a studies’ coordinator at the International Institute for Human Rights, from Strasbourg. From 1991 until 1997, he was a member of the Consultative Council at the Institute for East-West Studies (IEWS), from New York. In 1993, and reelected in 1999, Adrian Năstase was Vice-president of the World Council of the Former Ministers of Foreign Affairs. He was a member of the American Society of International Law (1995), honorary member of the Euro-Atlantic Association ”Manfred Worner” (1999), Co-president of the Committee for the South–East Europe of the Socialist International(2004 -2006), Honorary Member of the Committee for the Language of the European Law (2005).
From 1990 until present, Adrian Năstase is president at Titulescu European Foundation, Bucharest. In 2003, he was president at the Association of International Law and International Relations (ADIRI) and Vice President at the same association from 1990 until 2003. President and founding member at the Romanian Association of Foreign Policy (2000); Adrian Năstase has a Ph.D. in International Law, Law Faculty, University of Bucharest (1987); Doctor Honoris Causa of the Independent University of Moldova, Chișinău, Republic of Moldova (2000); Doctor Honoris Causa of the University of Suceava (2002); Honor Medal of the Sao Paulo University, Brasil (2003).
Gabriela Crețu’s name is closely tied, one can say almost synonym, with the political world in general and the European Union in particular. She studied Philosophy and History at the „A.I. Cuza” University in Iași, graduating in 1987. Later on she finished, in 1998, a PhD. In Philosophy – Epistemology of Social Sciences at the same university, followed by a series of post graduate courses in Human Rights, Election Campaigns, Gender and Gender Mainstreaming, Political Communication, European Institutions etc.
Professionally she has an impressing record as a civil servant, being from 1987 a High School Teacher in Social Sciences. This seemingly small job is nothing compared to her future career path, afterward becoming a Member of the Romanian Parliament and then Observer-Member in the European one. When it comes to the unionist structures from 2009 she became Permanent Representative to European Institutions for the Senate and then Member of the Romanian Parliament, occupying the position of Chairperson of European Affairs Committee starting with 2012.
She is the author and co-author of 9 books in various fields, and numerous articles in social sciences, political philosophy, epistemology, etc. being, from time to time, a columnist for some national newspapers in Romania. In regards to politics she had a long list of positions such as Vice President, Responsible for Relations with the Civil Society, Member in the National Council and the list can go on, for her overall achievements being awarded the rank of Officer of the Educational Merit Order.
From the period that marked the end of Romania’s isolation in the international sphere through the fall of the communist regime, Adrian Severin started his esteemed career as a global personality. He is a jurist by profession although he has also distinguished himself as a political figure at the national and European level.
In 1986 he received his PhD title in Law at the University of Bucharest after which he completed a postgraduate study at the Academy of Economic Studies and Business University School in London. He worked as a legal consultant and then in the academic field, being also an editorialist in different magazines all before commencing his prosperous political career. In this field he served the needs of the people as a deputy and civic worker in different ministries before representing the interests of Romania abroad as a Minister of Foreign Affairs and later on Member of the European Parliament (MEP).
From 1998-2001 he was the leader of the Romanian Delegation at the Parliamentary Assembly of OSCE, afterwards becoming president and honorary president. All of it followed by his work done as a MEP and euro observer where he fought for the European funds that are given to Romania. When it comes to foreign affairs, it is worth mentioning that, Adrian Severin was the leader of the OSCE Commission for Belarus, Special Rapporteur at the United Nations, member of the Convention for the Future of Europe, Coordinator at the East-West Institute in the United States, member of the Eurobarometer and many more. He has achievements in the Law field also entering the Bar in 1994, being a member in the Romanian Society of Comparative Law, The Romanian Association for International Law and International Relations, The Romanian Association of Lawyers and even founder of the Romanian Academic Society.
When it comes to awards he has an extended list of distinctions from countries such as the United Kingdom, U.S.A., Belgium, and even Venezuela.
The name of Doina Mureșan will persist on the halls of the Romanian military history and on the lips of every young professional that aspires to follow her path. She finished in 1986 the Active Officer’s Military School „Nicolae Bălcescu” in Sibiu and then went straight up to the National Defense University „Carol I” Panduri 68-72 in Bucharest, followed by an even more profound studying of the military field at the same institution but in the NATO Defense College and Faculty of Command and Joint Chiefs, all crowned up by a Ph.D. in the Military Sciences. Being extremely active in this field she did a post-doctorate course on the International Economic Relations at the Romanian Institute of Diplomacy and later on, in 2007, a Master in Educational and Psych-pedagogic Management continued by one in National Defense and Security, Information-based Management of Projects, and a long list of specialization studies at the EIPA, Universitat Munchen, NATO School etc. Even though her studies are impressive her jobs are even more, especially as she worked in parallel with the academic pursuit, starting as a chief accountant in the Ministry of Defense in 1986, officer in the financial department of DGIA, chief of the bureau of economic-financial analysis in the Unified Commandment of Logistics, from 2006 being on the other side of the desk at the university where she began her studies, from this position writing more than 7 books and numerous articles.
Liviu Muresan, PhD, Professor, founder and the Executive President of the EURISC Foundation – European Institute for Risk, Security and Communication Management (1995). He graduated courses of the Defence College NATO GFO (Rome), of the Institut des Hautes Etudes de Defense Nationale (Paris), of the Center for Civil-Military Relations (Monterey). He held several positions in the governmental structures: Senior Adviser to the Prime Minister, Senior Adviser to the Romanian Government, Senior Adviser to the Interior Minister, High Representative of the Romanian Government of the Anti-Corruption Initiative of the Pact of Stability (SPAI) and of the Combating Organized Crime Initiative (SPOC). He was Director of the Romanian Agency for setting up the regional SECI Center for Combating Transborder Organized Crime, and as the Deputy Director of the National Defence College he was the first civilian appointed in command position in the Romanian Army (1993-1994). He is Executive President of the Euro-Atlantic Council Romania – Casa NATO, EURODEFENCE Romania and Association des Anciens Auditeurs de l’IHEDN (Paris). Since 2007, he is member of European Security Research and Innovation Forum (ESRIF), contributing to the development of a “Joint Security Research Agenda” (European Commission). He received the National Order “Star of Romania” – Class Officer (2000).
Florin Pasatoiu, President and Executive Director Center for Foreign Policy and Security Studies
Lecturer in International Relations, president and director of the Center for Foreign Policy and Security Studies. Florin Pasatoiu was awarded five fellowship schemes: with MGIMO, at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs- Russian Federation (in Moscow, September-November 2014), with Salzburg Global Seminar (in Salzburg, May 2014), with the German Marshall Fund of the United States of America (in the United States of America, February – March 2008), with the European Foundation Centre, International Fellowship Programme for Learning and Exchange in Philanthropy (IFP) (at ALDA- in Italy and Council of Europe- Strasbourg, in 2007) and with the Mission of Romania to the European Union (in Brussels, in 2003). Florin Pasatoiu has been involved in the “Whither Liberal World Order? Challenges from Russia, Eurasia, and Beyond” working group hosted by University of Kent, Canterbury (UK) in the framework of the H2020 UPTAKE project, which brings together scholars from the Universities of Kent, Uppsala University (Sweden) and Tartu (Finland).
Lecturer in Diplomacy and Global Governance at the Institute for Diplomacy and International Governance (Loughborough London University). Before joining the Institute Cristian was a Lecturer in Politics and International Relations at Aston University. He also held a Postdoctoral Fellow in EU-Russia relations and Ukraine at LSE IDEAS, as well as research positions at Trinity College Dublin and the College of Europe (Natolin campus, ENP Chair). He was awarded a PhD in 2014 from Loughborough University working on a project on the legitimacy of the foreign policy of the European Union. He also gained a MA in International Relations form the University of Nottingham and a BA in International Relations and European Studies.
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